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A 44-year-old woman presents to the hospital ER with a low blood pressure of 77/40, a heart rate of 40, and normal pupils. She has an empty bottle of blood pressure pills that have a pKa of 7.5. In addition to hemodynamically supporting the patient, you want the patient to excrete the drug in the urine. Theoretically, of the following choices, what would be the most appropriate action?
Which clinical trail phase primarily deals with dose-response on healthy volunteers?
Which receptor type typically functions using cAMP as a mediator?
What is the most commonly used antidote for organophosphate poisoning?
Which receptors typically occur in the brain, heart, and smooth muscles and mediate parasympathetic activity?
A female presents to your clinic with occasional sporadic movements of her upper and lower extremities. She reports these symptoms started recently and have been progressively getting worse. She vaguely remembers her father had a similar condition, but he died when she was very young. Which of the following conditions is most likely?
Which anesthetic drug is administered intravenously?
What most accurately describes the mechanism of action of tiagabine on gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)?
What is most accurate regarding fentanyl?
A 5-year-old child overdoses on her mother’s anti-depression medications. The pKa of the drug is 3.9. The pH of the small bowel is 5.9. What is the correct ratio of protonated to unprotonated molecules?
Post marketing surveillance of a new drug is performed during which clinical trial phase?
Which of the following refers to a relatively sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration?
What is not the origin of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?
Which drug provides temporary relief during a myasthenic crisis?
Which medication is commonly used in the acute treatment of dystonic reactions?
A 17-year-old female presents to your clinic because of abnormal uncontrolled limb movements over the past few months. She has no history of a serious illness. On physical examination, her liver is slightly enlarged. Blood results reveal elevated liver enzymes. Which finding is associated with the most likely diagnosis in this patient?
What statement is true regarding ethosuximide?
Which anti-seizure medication exerts its effects by blocking T-type calcium channels?
What is more likely a side effect of meperidine than other opiates?
A patient has overdosed on pyrimethamine, with a pKa of 7.42. What percentage of the drug will be trapped in the urine if the urine pH is 5.42?
Nortriptyline is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6. Which of the following regarding homozygotes for inactive alleles of cytochrome P450 2D6 is most accurate?
Drug X has a Kd of 700 pg/mL and an EC50 of 700 pg/mL, which of the following is most accurate?
What is not regulated by the parasympathetic pathway?
Which of the following signs/symptoms is LEAST likely during a cholinergic crisis?
What is not a side effect of atropine?
Pharmacotherapy for Tourette syndrome includes dopamine antagonism. Which drug is the most appropriate in this regard?
What is a common sedative medication in the ICU?
Both barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BDZ) work by affecting gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A activity on the chloride channel, but by different mechanisms. What best describes this difference?
What is NOT a side effect of morphine?
A patient has overdosed on pyrimethamine (weak base). It has a pKa of 7.42. What portion of the drug will be hydrophilic at a urine pH of 8.42?
Which of the following medications is a P-glycoprotein inhibitor?
Which of the following best describes first-pass metabolism?
What organ is a major site for non-central nervous system dopamine receptors?
What is LEAST likely to activate beta-adrenergic receptors?
Which medication may be used to treat anticholinergic poisoning?
What is most accurate regarding the use of valproate during pregnancy?
What best describes the mechanism of action of depolarizing muscle relaxants?
Which statement is correct regarding pancuronium?
Which medication may be appropriate for neonatal abstinence syndrome with a history of opioid abuse during pregnancy?
Which category of substances is most likely to increase agonist efficacy?
Which of the following terms refers to the ability of a drug to activate the mechanisms to cause a biologic effect?
Which of the following routes of administration is most likely to have the highest bioavailability for a given drug?
What organ is a major site of M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors?
What is the mechanism of botulinum?
What is a common side effect of levodopa?
What is the most appropriate pharmacotherapy in newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy?
Which patient would be an appropriate candidate for succinylcholine therapy?
What is true about succinylcholine?
What is the most frequent adverse effect of levetiracetam?
Which drug characteristic makes a drug more likely to enter a cell through a protein channel?
Which of the following better describes the selectivity of a drug?
Drug X has a bioavailability of 90% when administered rectally, but only 40% when administered orally. Which of the following statements best explains this discrepancy?
Activation of what type of receptor results in mydriasis?
Receptors in the autonomic ganglions are mainly of which type?
Levodopa should be avoided with which condition?
Phenobarbital should be avoided in which types of seizure?
Why will pyridostigmine NOT reverse succinylcholine?
What affects the central nervous system?
What will not enhance the activity of local anesthetics?
According to Fick’s law, change of which parameter will increase passive diffusion into a cell?
Which of the following statements most accurately describes a drug with high efficacy and high potency?
Dosing rate is inversely proportional to which of the following?
Which cholinergic receptor is responsible for reducing the rate of SA node firing?
What best describes hexamethonium?
Which drug and receptor type are paired correctly?
What is the first-line treatment for convulsive status epilepticus?
What is a depolarizing muscle relaxant that is eliminated through the liver?
What most likely reduces the chance of a nerve block by local anesthetic?
Which distinguishes serotonin syndrome from pyrexia syndrome?
Which of the following statements regarding hydrophilic drugs is most accurate?
Which of the following statements regarding steroids is most accurate?
Loading dose is proportional to which of the following factors?
Which of the following is categorized as a non-selective alpha-adrenergic blocker?
Which drug is most likely to increase peripheral resistance?
Which medication is most appropriate when motor symptoms of Parkinson disease begin to interfere with daily function and quality of life?
What is an adverse effect of phenytoin?
Which list is in the following order: shortest acting to longest acting?
Where do local anesthetics act?
Which statement is correct regarding fentanyl?
One hundred units of drug A are administered to a patient intravenously. The volume of distribution of the drug is 2.5 liters. What is the concentration of the drug in the blood?
Which cells lack cytochrome P450 enzymes?
Which of the following statements regarding the therapeutic window is CORRECT?
Which statement about labetalol is incorrect?
What best describes the mechanism of action of clonidine?
What is the benefit of adding carbidopa to levodopa?
What is most accurate regarding the pharmacokinetics of inhaled anesthetics?
Where in the body does cyclobenzaprine act directly?
What is the most accurate comparison between amide and ester local anesthetics?
Which of the following increases volume of distribution?
Excretion of conjugates and their metabolites from cells primarily occurs during which phase(s) of drug metabolism?
Which of the following is the correction factor used for females in the Cockcroft-Gault formula?
What is NOT an indication for beta-blocker therapy?
What is not seen with phenylephrine administration?
Which medication most significantly increases the risk of serotonin syndrome when administered with selegiline?
What is the relationship between ventilation rate and induction of anesthesia?
What is the mechanism of action of diazepam?
What is a side effect of topical anesthetics?
The volume of distribution for drug A is 8L. What is the total dose required to reach a plasma concentration of 4 units/L?
Which of the following drugs is an inducer of cytochrome P450?
Which of the following refers to the difference between the minimum effective concentration and maximum therapeutic concentration of a drug?
Which beta blocker also acts on alpha receptors?
What is a significant side effect of high-dose dopamine administration?
What is most accurate about tolcapone, in comparison to entacapone?
What speeds up anesthesia induction?
Which statement is correct regarding malignant hyperthermia?
A 27-year-old female presents to the emergency department with extensive pruritic hives and excoriations on her arms and legs after dental surgery and local anesthesia with procaine. She has no history of a serious illness and takes no medications. What is the mechanism of this condition?
Which clinical trial phase consists of randomized controlled multicenter trials on large patient groups aimed at establishing the effectiveness of a drug?
A patient currently takes drug (A), which is metabolized by CYP450. How would you change the prescription for drug (A) once the patient tells you that they are now taking St. John’s Wort?
Which of the following equations can be used to calculate the loading dose of a drug?
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be caused by beta blockers?
What most likely decreases with isoproterenol administration?
What is a concerning side effect of tolcapone?
Which effect is NOT associated with general anesthesia?
Which medication does not decrease intracranial pressure?
What is NOT considered an effect of opioids?
A parent drug is primarily polarized during which phase(s) of drug metabolism?
A patient takes a drug that has a Kd of 100 micrograms. The patient had been on a drug that had a Kd of 100 milligrams. Which of the following is TRUE?
Which of the following equations can be used to calculate the dosing interval of a drug?
Which beta blocker also stimulates nitric oxide?
What drug class reduces intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous production?
A man presents to the emergency room with schizophrenia-like symptoms. He is belligerent, combative, and raving about aliens in his room. Moments after treatment with haloperidol, he complains of muscle rigidity and cannot seem to turn his head from an abnormal, twisted posture. What is the most appropriate next step in management?
During general anesthesia, a patient develops tachypnea and a rise in end-tidal CO2 followed by hyperthermia and generalized muscle rigidity. What is the most appropriate next step in pharmacotherapy?
Which condition is an appropriate indication for management with baclofen?
A reduced capacity for which side effect makes nalbuphine a safer alternative to morphine?
Conjugation primarily refers to which phase of drug metabolism?
Which of the following best describes EC50?
Which of the following equations can be used to calculate the maintenance dose of a drug?
Which substance would activate a muscarinic cholinergic receptor but NOT a nicotinic cholinergic receptor?
What drug might improve symptoms of urinary incontinence?
Which statement is CORRECT about amantadine?
What is the best screening method for malignant hyperthermia?
Which drug is INCORRECTLY matched to its target receptor?
What is the downside to using buprenorphine?
What is true about competitive inhibitors?
Which of the following is more likely to decrease the volume of distribution?
Jill takes a pill for depression. The pharmacokinetic properties show a Kd of 344 pg/ml, and a ED50 of 200 pg/ml. What does this mean?
Which of the following regarding loading dose is most accurate?
What is NOT a potential use for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors?
Which receptors are primarily stimulated during tocolysis caused by terbutaline?
What is true regarding the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia?
What is the most appropriate step in the management of phenobarbital toxicity?
What is the mechanism that allows local anesthetics to pass the polarized membrane and into nerve cells?
What is not expected after naloxone administration for opioid toxicity?
Which of the following regarding lipophilic drugs is most accurate?
Which of the following is not performed in the preclinical phase of drug testing?
Which of the following describes a constant rate of elimination over time, regardless of the concentration?
Why are normal serum creatinine levels for adult men (0.9 to 1.3 mg/dL) higher than those for adult women (0.6 to 1.1 mg/dL)?
What is the usual cause of death caused by sarin (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor)?
Which receptor is typically present in the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles?
Which dopamine pathway is associated with hallucinations in schizophrenia?
What is NOT a side effect of ketamine when used as a general anesthetic?
According to the lecture, which of the following factors is least likely to influence nerve block?
What is true about hyperpyrexia syndrome?