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Which of the following statements about imaging for appendicitis is FALSE?
Which of the following is a typical symptom of small bowel obstruction?
An important tool to diagnose hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer is the Bethesda criteria, which is described by all of the following EXCEPT?
Which of the following is an INCORRECT match between the source of the bleeding and its type?
Which of the following is an indication for surgery for complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease?
Which of the following is an indication for Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans?
Which of the following is NOT true about cholangitis?
Which of the following patients has the highest risk for invasive ductal carcinoma?
Where are the majority of pheochromocytomas located in the body?
Which of the following statements is NOT true about pre-operative evaluation and management of appendicitis patients?
A 55-year-old male patient is diagnosed with small bowel obstruction. Which of the following laboratory findings increases the likelihood that this patient will need an urgent surgical intervention?
Which statement is TRUE?
All of the following are tools that can be used to evaluate lower gastrointestinal bleeding EXCEPT?
Immediately after surgery for severe esophagitis, a patient reports difficulty belching, increased saliva, and abdominal pain. What is the likely cause of these symptoms?
Which of the following is NOT true about amoebic liver abscesses?
Which of the following is the Charcot triad?
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for invasive ductal carcinoma?
Which laboratory test is most specific for diagnosing a pheochromocytoma?
Which of the following answer choices is TRUE about the anatomy of abdominal wall?
Which one of the following is a typical metabolic laboratory finding in a patient with small bowel obstruction?
All of the following are used to diagnose metastatic colon cancer EXCEPT?
A 34-year-old male presents with a one-day history of bright red blood per rectum. He denies any abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. He reports, however, several weeks of painful bowel movements and occasional blood on tissue paper when wiping. He has a long history of chronic constipation. On digital rectal exam, fresh blood is noted on the examiner’s glove. What is the most likely cause of this patient’s bleeding?
Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor for pancreatitis?
Which of the following is NOT a complication of an amoebic liver abscess?
Which of the following is Reynolds pentad?
A 63-year-old woman who has a sister with a history of breast cancer presents to the clinic with a concern over a palpable lump in her breast. A mammogram confirms the suspicion of an abnormal lesion in the left breast. What is the next most appropriate step in management?
All of the following are classic symptoms of pheochromocytoma EXCEPT?
Which statement about hernias is FALSE?
Which of the following is NOT true about elevated lactic acid concentration in the blood in the setting of intestinal obstruction?
All of the following modalities of treatment can be used for BOTH colon and rectal cancers EXCEPT?
Which statement is TRUE about localizing gastrointestinal bleeding?
Which statement about the presentation of pancreatitis in a patient is FALSE?
What are the common methods of treatment for pyogenic liver abscesses?2
Which of the following is NOT a typical abnormal laboratory finding in cholangitis?
A 58-year-old woman is confirmed to have invasive ductal carcinoma on biopsy of her right breast. In consultation with her physicians, she makes it clear that she is opposed to getting radiation therapy due to her fear of side effects. What is the most appropriate treatment option for this patient?
A patient with chronic, refractory hypertension presents with severe headaches, episodic sweating, and palpitations. Urine catecholamines and metanephrines are elevated. What is the first-line imaging study used to locate the suspected pheochromocytoma?
Which of the following statements is correct?
Which of the following results in a complete bowel obstruction?
Which one of the following statements about diverticular disease is FALSE?
Which of the following is the LAST step in the management sequence of brisk gastrointestinal bleeding?
On serum analysis of pancreatitis, which of the following elevated lab values suggest common bile duct obstruction?
What is the geographic area with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma?
What is the next step in the management of a patient diagnosed with cholangitis and hemodynamic instability (biliary sepsis)?
Which of the following statements is true about a patient found to have a non-invasive lesion in the lobules and terminal ducts of the right breast?
What is the mechanism of the MIBG scan?
Which of the following is NOT true about ventral hernias?
All of the following are indications for immediate surgery in patients with bowel obstruction except?
Which of the following is a risk factor of diverticulosis?
How can gastric lavage performed prior to endoscopy help in the management of an upper gastrointestinal bleed?
A 58-year-old man with a past medical history of alcoholism and previous hospital admissions for pancreatitis presents to the emergency room with severe diffuse abdominal pain that radiates to his back, nausea, and vomiting. On exam, he has tachycardia and a blood pressure of 110/60 mm Hg. He appears dehydrated and is tender all over his abdomen with maximal point tenderness in the epigastric region. Labs are as follows: lactate of 2.4 mmol/L, white blood cell count of 20,000/uL, glucose of 210 mg/dL, alanine transaminase (ALT) of 180 units/L, aspartate transaminase (AST) of 260 units/L, and lactate dehydrogenase of 380 units/L. What is this patient’s initial Ranson score on admission?
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with all of the following EXCEPT?
If your physical exam and transabdominal ultrasound are equivocal for cholecystitis, what should be your next step in management?
Which patient’s presentation is most concerning for thyroid cancer?
What is the minimum size of a tumor in the adrenal gland which can be detected on CT scan?
Where is visceral peritoneal pain usually felt?
Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor for developing a ventral hernia?
Which of the following is not included in the non-operative management of bowel obstruction?
A 55-year-old male with a history of diverticulosis and recurrent bouts of diverticulitis presents to the emergency room with a one-day history of fever and chills. Physical exam is significant for generalized abdominal pain and tenderness, peritoneal signs, and vitals show hemodynamic instability. Which one of the following is likely to be the cause of his symptoms?
Which of the following is not considered a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma?
In which of the following cases of pancreatitis should a CT scan be obtained?
Which one of the following is NOT included in calculating the Child-Pugh score?
Which of the following age groups are recommended by US preventive services task force to undergo mammography every 2 years as a screening for breast cancer?
Which of the following types of thyroid cancer has the worst prognosis?
A patient is diagnosed with a symptomatic pheochromocytoma. This was confirmed by urine catecholamines and metanephrines, and CT imaging of a 3 cm lesion on the right adrenal medulla. What is the next best step in management?
Which of the following combinations of the cause of abdominal pain and the clinical localization of the pain is INCORRECT?
Which of the following statements about the diagnosis and treatment of ventral hernias is TRUE?
All of the following are risk factors for colon cancer EXCEPT for?
Which one of the following definitions of the various Hinchey classifications is INCORRECT?
All of the following are indicative of advanced metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma EXCEPT?
Which of the following is NOT standard in biliary pancreatitis management?
Which one of the following classes of liver cirrhosis indicates the worst prognosis?
Which of the following breast masses confer an increased risk of developing breast cancer?
For which of the following patients is radioactive iodine treatment ineffective?
What is potentially the most catastrophic complication of surgical resection of a right-sided adrenal pheochromocytoma?
A 24-year-old woman presents with acute right lower quadrant pain. Which of the following pathologies MUST be included in your differential?
In cases of strangulated hernia diagnoses, what is the recommended next step in management?
Which of the following is TRUE about hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer?
Which of the following is NOT typically part of the management of Hinchey Class 1 diverticulitis?
How is esophageal ultrasound a useful tool in diagnosing and staging gastric adenocarcinoma when compared with endoscopy?
A patient is deteriorating after a diagnosis of pancreatitis was made. Further workup including a CT scan was performed and showed extensive areas of necrosis in the pancreas. Which of the following is the most likely next step?
Which of the following patients is NOT a candidate for surgical resection of liver cancer?
A 29-year-old woman with no past medical history presents with a lump on her left breast that she has noticed in the past 3 months. On exam, the mass is firm, smooth, non-tender, and feels to be about 3 cm in diameter. What is the next best step in management?
A patient is experiencing hoarseness of her voice several days post-operatively after thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer. What is the most likely reason for this?
Which of the following are the three tumors associated with MEN-2A syndrome?
Which of the following radiological signs does not suggest a surgical abdomen?
Which of the following is CORRECT regarding carcinoid tumors?
Which statement is FALSE?
Which of the following is NOT an indication for surgical intervention in patients with diverticulitis?
What is the treatment for mucosal-associated lymphoproliferative tissue gastric cancer (MALToma)?
Which one is NOT associated with hemorrhagic pancreatitis?
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are mostly supplied by which blood vessel?
When is excision of a fibroadenoma recommended?
Which genetic syndrome is associated with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas?
Which of the following tumors are associated with MEN-2B syndrome?
Which of the following imaging findings is correctly paired with the clinical cause?
Which is NOT a symptom of carcinoid syndrome?
A patient was diagnosed with Gardner Syndrome. Which of the following is not a classic extracolonic manifestation of this syndrome?
Complications of diverticulitis include all of the following EXCEPT?
A 58-year-old man with a past history of Helicobacter pylori treatment failure and chronic gastritis presents to the outpatient clinic with progressive symptoms of decreasing appetite, early satiety, and weight loss. He states that he can’t even enjoy his favorite food, canned meat, anymore. On exam, you note that he is thin, pale, has a soft, non-tender abdomen, and has a palpable smooth, mobile mass near his umbilicus. What is most concerning about this presentation?
When comparing acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis, which of the following is true about lab findings?
Which of the following is TRUE about gall bladder disease?
Which of the following statements about atypical ductal hyperplasia is FALSE?
A patient presents with recurrent sweating, dizziness, confusion, and palpitations. What would you expect to find on laboratory tests that would support a diagnosis of a pancreatic islet cell tumor (an insulinoma)?
What further screening must be done for a patient diagnosed with a pheochromocytoma?
Which one of the following is NOT typically a classic symptom of appendicitis?
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the effects of carcinoid syndrome on the heart?
Which one of the following is the correct sequence of mutations which lead to colon cancer?
Which of the following statements about colonic volvuli are FALSE?
A 47-year-old lawyer with a past history of smoking cigarettes presents to the outpatient clinic with complaints of several months of chest pain, especially when she lays down to go to bed. She denies any radiation of the chest pain but has occasionally felt chest tightness when rushing to catch a taxi-cab when she is late to work. She also complains of a dry cough in the mornings, but no shortness of breath, and she denies any fevers. She occasionally feels nauseous in the morning and has had a few episodes of acidic emesis after her morning coffee, which she takes on an empty stomach because she doesn’t feel like she has time for breakfast in the mornings. She is working on a very important case at work that is causing her anxiety. Although her presentation appears quite typical of gastroesophageal reflux disease, which of her symptoms should raise a red flag for a possibly more serious health concern?
Which of the following is TRUE about pancreatic pseudocysts?
A 35-year-old female is 4 weeks postpartum and presents with a 3-day history of progressively worsening right upper quadrant pain that radiates to her shoulder. It is worse after eating particularly fatty food and she occasionally has nausea and vomiting after meals. She denies any fevers or malaise. She notes that she had gallstones incidentally found on an ultrasound in the past, but they have never bothered her before. What has likely changed to make her asymptomatic gallstones now symptomatic?
Which of the following is recommended to decrease the risk of invasive breast cancer in a patient with diagnosed atypical ductal hyperplasia?
A 53-year-old nurse presents with recurrent sweating, dizziness, confusion, and palpitations. On laboratory exams, her complete blood count is normal, lactate is normal, blood glucose level is low, insulin level is high, and C-peptide level is low. What is the most likely diagnosis?
What are the majority of pheochromocytomas typically associated with?
Which one of the following is a classic physical exam finding of appendicitis?
Which is NOT true about niacin deficiency?
Which of the following gene mutations is correctly matched to its phenotype?
Which part of the colon is most commonly involved in volvulus?
What is the best way of visually identifying esophagitis in gastroesophageal reflux disease?
Which of the following scenarios is LEAST likely to require surgical drainage?
Which of the following lab values suggest common bile duct obstruction?
What constitutes an appropriate physical exam for a patient with a primary complaint of a breast lump?
Which imaging modality can be used to identify an insulinoma’s location in the pancreas AND obtain a biopsy?
A 28-year-old patient with hypertension, episodic severe headaches, episodic diaphoresis, and tachycardia is found to have a 3 cm pheochromocytoma. What is the next best step in management?
Psoas sign is associated with which position of the appendix?
Which of the following is NOT true about chromogranin A levels?
Which of the following patients’ histories meets the Amsterdam Criteria I for diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer?
Which of the following presentations is NOT matched correctly with its cause?
Which one of the following is NOT commonly recommended to reduce the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease?
Which one of the following factors does NOT increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer?
What is a positive Murphy’s sign?
Which of the following describes the appearance of a cyst on ultrasound?
Which types of tumors are NOT typically associated with MEN 1 Syndrome?
Which of the following adrenal tumors that are incidentally found does NOT meet criteria for surgical removal?
What is the standard of care in non-emergent appendicitis treatment?
A patient presents with flushing, asthma-like symptoms, and weight loss. Which of the following is NOT included in the differential diagnosis?
Which of the following patients’ family histories meets the Amsterdam Criteria II for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer?
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the management of volvulus?
What are the mechanisms of action of proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists?
Which of the following is NOT true about hepatic adenomas?
Which of the following is the preferred choice for diagnosing acute cholecystitis if ultrasound imaging is equivocal?
How does ductal carcinoma in situ usually present?
A 58-year-old woman presents with persistent epigastric abdominal pain despite high-intensity proton-pump inhibitor therapy for gastric ulcer disease. She is unable to eat full meals due to debilitating abdominal pain, has frequent fatty stools, and has unintentionally lost about 15 pounds in the past 4 months. You order labs and note that plasma gastrin levels are elevated. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Which of the following syndromes is associated with pheochromocytomas, cerebellar hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cysts?
A 19-year-old male presents to the emergency room with progressively worsening abdominal pain that started in his mid-abdomen and then migrated to his right lower quadrant. He reports general malaise, nausea, and lack of appetite. On physical exam, he has maximal point tenderness at McBurney’s point. History and exam are convincing of appendicitis and he was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic appendectomy. In the operating room, the appendix appears normal. What must also be considered in the differential diagnosis for this patient?
Small bowel obstruction is a very common diagnosis. Which of the following is NOT a common cause of this condition?
All of the following are Lynch syndrome-associated cancers except?
According to Laplace’s law, which area of the colon is most likely to perforate if involved in a volvulus?
Which of the following correctly defines Barrett’s esophagus?
Which of the following is NOT true about hepatic hemangiomas?
Which of the following is the best option for the management of acute cholecystitis?
Which of the following is not part of breast conservation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ?
A patient with persistent peptic ulcer disease, fatty diarrhea, and weight loss is found to have a gastrinoma in the duodenum. Which treatment can be curative?