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What structures pass through the intervertebral foramina?
What are the attachments of the supraspinous ligaments?
What is the action produced by the contraction of the bilateral longissimus muscles?
How does the diaphragm move during normal expiration?
Where are the level 3 axillary lymph nodes located?
What is the innervation of the pyramidalis, a relatively small muscle of the abdomen?
What pelvic bone makes a minor contribution to the formation of the acetabulum?
With respect to the femoral sheath, which of the following is most accurate?
Which line separates the abdomen into right and left halves?
Which nerves arise from the L1 spinal cord segment?
During development, which structure avoids penetration by the testes?
Which area of the stomach is attached to the liver via a peritoneal fold?
In which segment of the gastrointestinal tract are Brunner’s glands located?
In which abdominal region does the large intestine begin?
Which structure is excluded from subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity?
How many functional lobes does the liver have?
The round ligament of the liver is the remnant of which of the following structures?
On which surface of the pancreas does the splenic artery run?
What is the vertebral level where the inferior mesenteric artery originates?
Which nerve roots pass through the defect in the obturator fascia?
What is the origin of the inferior oblique muscle in the suboccipital muscle group?
What can cause the compression of spinal nerves?
Which ligament stabilizes the body during extension?
Which group of intrinsic back muscles includes the semispinalis capitis?
What vertebral level does the intercristal line identify?
Which respiratory phase shows a reduced anteroposterior diameter?
What parts of the diaphragm border Bochdalek’s triangle?
What is the other name for the parasternal lymph nodes of the breast?
Which muscle originates from the iliac crest?
What portion does the Ilium contribute to the formation of the acetabulum?
When considering boundaries of the femoral canal, which of the following structures forms the medial border?
The costal cartilages of which ribs form the superior boundary of the abdomen?
During development, which region do the testes pass through to descend into the scrotum?
Which structure will form the deepest layer of the spermatic cord?
In relation to the stomach, at which position do the kidneys lie?
Which statement regarding the small intestine is inaccurate?
Which 2 parts of the large intestine are suspended by mesentery?
Which of the following organs is intraperitoneal?
Which lobe is excluded from the anatomical lobes of the liver?
Which statement describes the relationship of the uncinate process with the head of the pancreas?
From which pancreatic surface does the root of the transverse mesocolon originate?
When the inferior mesenteric artery terminates, what is the artery where it continues?
Which of the following nerves runs lateral to the psoas major muscle?
Which abdominal organ commonly refers pain to the umbilical region?
What vertebral curvature develops when an infant begins to stand up and learn to walk?
What vertebral segment allows the greatest range of motion due to its orientation of the zygapophyseal joints?
Unilateral contraction of either of the two most lateral erector spinae muscles will result in which action?
Which structure makes the boundary of the triangle of auscultation?
Which muscle inserts on the coracoid process?
An elevated left hemidiaphragm is seen on a chest X-ray. What could be the cause?
Which lymph nodes receive 75% of the lymph that drains from the breast?
What is the definition of the arcuate line?
How many gluteal lines are present on the ilium?
With respect to hernias, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Which muscles do the thoracoabdominal and subcostal nerves run between?
Which structure is contained in the inguinal canal in women?
At which position related to the inferior epigastric vessels do indirect inguinal hernias occur?
A patient seen in the emergency department complains of severe abdominal rigidity, fullness, and rebound tenderness and is found to have a fever. The patient states a history of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to arthritis and denies having black stools. Which condition is the patient most likely to have?
Which statement describes the chyme entering the small intestine?
Which of the following features is not found in the large intestine?
Which organ does the falciform ligament attach to the anterior abdominal wall?
Which blood vessel has a remnant that is found in the free edge of the falciform ligament?
Which surface of the pancreas does the root of the transverse mesocolon run along?
Which ribs are located alongside the spleen?
Which of the following venous anastomosis variations does NOT occur?
The kidneys are typically located between which vertebral levels?
Which abdominal quadrant contains the spleen?
What makes the intervertebral foramina?
Unilateral contraction of the spinalis muscle results in which action?
What is the level at which a lumbar puncture is performed?
Which intrinsic muscle of the thorax spans more than one intercostal space as it attaches to a rib above and a rib below?
What structure of the diaphragm may attach to the fourth lumbar vertebra?
What is the most common location of breast cancer?
What muscle has attachments to the 12th rib, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae, and the iliac crest?
Where is the ischial spine located?
Which costal cartilage does the subcostal plane pass through?
Above the umbilicus, what structures form the posterior layer of the rectus sheath?
Which organ/structure avoids physical contact with the posterior surface of the stomach?
In which part of the duodenum is the major duodenal papilla located?
Which part of the large intestine is attached to the greater omentum?
Which statement describes the mesentery?
Which lobes of the liver are closely related to the gallbladder?
Which statement regarding the pancreas is inaccurate?
At which vertebral level does the descending aorta pass through the diaphragm?
Which statement regarding kidneys is inaccurate?
Where do the 2 horizontal lines pass when dividing the abdomen into 9 regions?
What is unique about the C1 vertebra?
Which muscle layer of the back contains the true or intrinsic back muscles?
The spinalis muscle spans across individual vertebrae connecting the entire spine by originating and inserting on which vertebral structure?
What is the ideal posture for a lumbar puncture?
Which muscle performs adduction of the arm?
At what vertebral level does the esophagus pass through its hiatus in the diaphragm?
What is the most common malignant cancer in women?
Which muscle is a powerful flexor of the femur?
What structure supports a person’s weight when someone is in a seated position?
A patient presents to the emergency department with severe pain on the right side of the abdomen and complains of nausea and vomiting. In which region of the abdomen would the inflamed structure be most likely to lie in?
What is the most posterior structure above the umbilicus in the anterior abdominal wall?
Which structures unite to form the conjoint tendon?
Which nerve passes through the superficial inguinal ring and can be injured during hernia repair?
Which region of the stomach is positioned superior to the cardiac orifice?
The major duodenal papilla is located at the opening of which structure that leads into the duodenum?
What is the order in which material passes through the different colonic segments before defecation?
Which of the following structure(s) is secondarily retroperitoneal?
Which lobes of the liver is the porta hepatis located between?
Which structure runs posterior to the neck of the pancreas?
What is the principal artery of the foregut?
With which systemic veins do the esophageal veins form a portal-systemic anastomosis ?
Which of the following structure(s) does not lie posterior to the kidneys?
What is the pubic area on the 9-region pattern called?
What is the other name for the C2 vertebra?
How many layers of muscle are present in the back?
What is the nerve supply of the rectus capitis posterior major or rectus major?
Which rib is related to the inferior-most portion of the lung along the paravertebral line?
What is the smallest extrinsic muscle?
At what vertebral level is the aortic hiatus found?
At which age will women have a clearer demonstration of malignant growth on a mammogram?
What lumbar root levels are involved in innervations of the psoas major?
Which pelvic bone contains the lesser sciatic notch?
What is the abdominal region where most of the liver is located?
Which of the following structures above the umbilicus is surrounded anteriorly and posteriorly by layers of the internal oblique aponeurosis?
What is the structure whose free edge forms the inguinal ligament?
A patient presents with pain in his scrotum. Examination findings show that he has an indirect inguinal hernia that is compressing a nerve. Which nerve is responsible for the patient’s pain?
Which artery supplies the greater curvature of the stomach?
Which structure sits in the concavity of the duodenum?
Which feature is absent from the large intestine?
Which foramen does the greater sac use to communicate with the lesser sac?
In which ligament is the portal triad present?
In which structure does the tail of the pancreas run?
What is the vertebral level where the inferior mesenteric artery originates from the aorta?
A patient with liver cirrhosis is found to have hemorrhoids on physical exam. In this patient, the inferior and middle rectal veins are most likely draining into which vein?
What is the position of the adrenal glands in relation to the kidneys?
Where does the pain of the foregut localize?
Which vertebra has an odontoid process?
Which muscle is broad and has multiple points of origin?
Which nerve is suboccipital?
What is the procedure in which the inferior lumbar triangle is clinically useful?
Which artery gives out a pericardiacophrenic branch?
After a mastectomy, a woman complains of diminished ability to adduct her arm. What nerve was damaged during the surgical procedure?
What vessel gives rise to the inferior epigastric artery?
Which structure contributes to the boundaries of both the pelvic inlet and the pelvic outlet of the true pelvis?
Which of the following is the boundary line that separates the right hypochondrium from the epigastrium?
What is the correct arrangement of muscles below the umbilicus?
Which structure forms the inferior wall (floor) of the inguinal canal?
Which structures pass through the deep inguinal ring in women?
A 65-year-old man with diabetes comes to the outpatient department with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. He also has gastroparesis. Which nerve is most likely damaged?
Which statement regarding the jejunum and ileum is true?
Which condition is excluded from signs of acute appendicitis?
Which statement regarding the mesentery is accurate?
Which surface of the liver does the inferior vena cava run through?
Which 2 veins unite to form the hepatic portal vein?
Which artery supplies the organs of the midgut?
In the setting of portal hypertension, the colic veins will drain into the inferior vena cava via which veins?
Which of the following nerves is not found directly posterior to the kidney?
Which muscle is on the posterior abdominal wall?
What is the signature feature of a thoracic vertebra?
Which muscle is supplied by the thoracodorsal nerve?
What is the nerve supply of the suboccipital triangle?
What is the potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura called?
Besides the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor, what is the complete set of extrinsic muscles of the thorax?
What are the last branches of the thoracic aorta supplying blood to the diaphragm?
What is a basic step in the sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure?
What is the source of the superior epigastric artery?
What is the anatomical landmark separating the true pelvis from the false pelvis?
For which important structure is McBurney’s point a surface landmark?
Which area would a midline incision between the 2 rectus sheaths cut through?
Which structure does NOT belong to the spermatic cord?
What is known about a direct inguinal hernia?
Which vessel has branches that supply the fundus of the stomach?
Which statement regarding the jejunum and ileum is inaccurate?
Which statement regarding the appendix is inaccurate?
Which organ is present in the supracolic compartment?
Which structure is responsible for suspending the liver from the diaphragm?
Which statement regarding the minor duodenal papilla is accurate?
Which artery has a branch called the gastroduodenal artery?
Which muscle is NOT part of the posterior abdominal wall?
Which statement concerning the renal vasculature is inaccurate?
Which muscle is an anterolateral flat muscle?
What segmental vertebra possesses mammillary processes?
What is the motor innervation of the trapezius?
What is the sensory innervation of the posterior surface of the scalp?
What is the surface landmark used to clinically differentiate between the superior and inferior lobes of the lung?
What vessel gives rise to the posterior intercostal arteries in intercostal spaces 3–11?
What is the source of motor innervation of the diaphragm?
After a mastectomy, a patient complains of winging of the scapula. Which nerve was damaged during the mastectomy?
What is the dermatomal level of the umbilicus?
How many apertures are present in a pelvic wall?
Which regions of the spinal cord are responsible for the referred pain of visceral organs?
Which is the name of the line which demarcates the posteroinferior limit of the rectus sheath?
What is the correct position of the deep inguinal ring in relation to the inferior epigastric vessels?
What is the average length of the esophagus in an adult human?
The thoracic part of the esophagus receives its blood supply from…?
From which artery do the jejunum and the ileum receive their blood supply?
Which statement regarding the large intestine is inaccurate?
Which structure separates the supracolic and infracolic compartments?
On which liver surface is the bare area of the liver present?
Which cells in the pancreas produce pancreatic enzymes?
Which artery is a branch of the splenic artery?
Which action does the quadratus lumborum perform?
Which structure lies just inside the renal fascia?
Where is the linea alba located?
Which vertebrae of the spinal cord have the largest bodies?
Which function does the levator scapulae perform?
Which muscle is innervated by an accessory nerve?
Which ribs are related to the posterior surface of the left kidney?
Which artery can be used as a graft in coronary bypass procedures?
What are the root levels of the phrenic nerve?
Why is injecting the blue dye or radiotracer and finding the sentinel node useful before the sentinel lymph node procedure?
What dermatome is related to the xiphoid process?
Which muscle contributes to the formation of the pelvic floor?
Which of the following landmarks is used to divide the abdomen into distinct regions?
During a cesarean section, a transverse suprapubic incision is made below the arcuate line. Which of the following abdominal wall structures will the incision avoid?
Which structure contains the slit-like opening called the superficial inguinal ring?
What is the correct position of the esophagus in relation to the trachea in the neck?
Which of the following structures is retroperitoneal?
At which level does the superior mesenteric artery originate from the aorta?
Which cells are present in the glands of the large intestine?
Which organ forms the lateral boundary of the lesser sac?
Which 2 ducts join to form the bile duct?
What is the function of the accessory pancreatic duct?
Which organ is not supplied by the celiac trunk directly or by any of its branches?
A patient had a severe accident in which his pelvis was fractured. Now he complains of an inability to flex his thigh. Which nerve roots are most likely damaged?
Where are nephrons located in the kidney?
What muscle belongs to the vertical muscle group of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
What forms the median sacral crest on the posterior aspect of the sacrum?
What is the nerve supply of the rhomboid major and rhomboid minor?
What muscle has its most superior attachments to the spinous process of the 2nd cervical vertebra and rotates the neck and head to the opposite side when it contracts?
What are the vertebrosternal ribs, or true ribs?
Which nerve, when injured, may result in winging of the scapula?
Where does the pain refer in cases of diaphragm irritation?
What is the term for the congenital condition of having extra nipples along the milk line?
What pelvic ligament has anterior and posterior components?
What is the correct order of the layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
What is the name of the inferior margin of the posterior layer of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis which is created at the site where the rectus abdominis becomes posterior to the aponeurosis?
Which structure strengthens the posterior aspect of the superficial inguinal ring to prevent herniation when the intra-abdominal pressure is raised?
What is the vertebral level where the esophageal hiatus is located?
Which organ receives secretions from both the liver and the pancreas?
Through which structure does the small intestine receive parasympathetic innervations?
Which structure is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery?
Which ligament within the greater omentum runs between the stomach and the transverse colon?
When is bile released into the duodenum?
Which boundary of the omental bursa does the spleen form?
Which vessel has a branch called the right gastric artery?
Which structure passes through the esophageal hiatus?
Which structure is located outside the renal sinus?
What layer of the abdominal wall lies immediately beneath the transversus abdominis muscle?
How many vertebrae fuse to form the coccyx?
A patient has difficulty extending the right arm against resistance. Which back muscle is involved?
What is the innervation of the muscles of the suboccipital region?
Which ribs lack anterior attachments?
How many pairs of intercostal nerves supply the intrinsic muscles of the thorax?
Over which ribs does the breast lie?
Which spinal nerves innervate the transversus abdominis muscle?
Which muscle aponeurosis forms an inguinal ligament?
Which statement about the subpubic angle in women is accurate?
Which statement describes the external oblique muscle?
The superior epigastric artery is the continuation of which artery?
Which boundaries of the inguinal canal are formed by the transversalis fascia?
Which of the following cardiac structures is located directly anterior to the esophagus?
In which quadrant of the abdomen does the jejunum originate?
Which of the following describes the effect of the parasympathetic system on the small intestine?
At which vertebral level does the inferior mesenteric artery originate from the abdominal aorta?
How many layers do peritoneal ligaments contain?
Which artery has a direct branch that usually supplies blood to the gallbladder?
Which ribs, when fractured, could rupture the spleen?