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A child with cough for long time, Ole Clubbing, anemia and low weight. He was started on ATT but no response. His X-ray showed tram track sign. Diagnosis?
A woman with peripheral tingling Sensation numbness. diplopia, gait abnormality was diagnosed with a demyelination disorder. Which Of the following cells get affected in such disorder?
Best way to measure GFR accurately is?
A diabetic patient has difficulty While she goes down from the stairs, her head is tilted towards left and her right eye is deviated upward and outward. Which muscle is affected?
In which of the following conditions, a tissue cannot utilize oxygen regardless of being provided with enough oxygen?
Cells responsible for innate immunity are activated most commonly by:
A patient treated with triple regime for H. pylori has now come for follow up. Which noninvasive test should be advised to know eradication?
Secretin is produced by?
A female pt underwent C-Section 3 months back. Her wound is not healing properly. She is taking diet rich in proteins and carbohydrates but deficient in fruits and vegetables. Reason for poor wound healing is?
Patient in supine position. aspirates gastric context. It will most likely go into?
patient with base of skull fracture is complaining of nausea, bradycardia and vomiting; because of fracture at?
A tall young man presented with sudden excruciating chest pain. epigastric pain radiating to the back and dyspnea. O/E BP 90/50 with subluxation of lens CXR showed widening of mediastinum. Condition associated with it is?
Which PFTs findings are closely related to a patient of bronchial asthma?
Aldosterone chiefly acts on?
Which drug should be avoided in CKD patient?
female with recurrent UT l. fever of 102 and hypotension. She has What type of shock?
A patient to OPD with complaints of easy fatigability, pallor, body aches. Her labs Hb 6.5. MCV 22, MCHC 26 and low ferritin. What’s the underline cause?
A student of final year MBBs witnessing surgery for the first time collapse due to
A 30-year female with Graves’s disease was started on propylthiouracil. A month later she complained of sore throat, low grade fever and in generally unwell. Which of the following tests constitute initial step evaluation in this patient?
Syncope with change in posture is due to?
Which of the following structure is formed by the 3rd week of gestation?
Autosomal dominant is different from autosomal recessive:
A female presents weight gain despite loss appetite. uses warm clothes in hot summer. has coarse voice and intolerance to cold Next best investigation will be?
A 35-year-old labour with acute sudden pain starting from lower lumbar area and radiating along post aspect of left lower limb. Symptoms started after lifting heavy weight 3 days ago. O’E straight leg raising restricted to 300 on left side, decreased sensation along lateral border of left foot, weakness of left flexor halluces longus and diminished ankle jerk. Compression of which of likely to be?
The lung function test parameter differentiating obstructive and restrictive lung disease is:
A female patient has jaundice. pruritus and xanthoma. O’E Hepatosplenomegaly is present What is the best investigation for this patient?
A slide kept for histology which shows abundant mucinous glands with few serous glands and also few ducts were seen. The gland is most likely?
The most common cause of subfertility is?
Following splenectomy Peripheral blood smear of patient shows.
A pt fainted during dental surgery, Trendelenburg position was maintained some irritant solution was snored in stimulate some area in brain, Which carries that?
Which type of thalassemia is most common in Pakistan?
Excitotoxic substances act on which receptors?
A father brought his daughter to OPO for treatment of Typhoid. What prophylaxis Should be given to the father?
Which hormone decrease gastric emptying after fatty meal?
Damage to fundus of stomach it will bleed by:
Hemibaliismus result from lesion in?
An elderly OBESE female was started on IV Gentamicin BO post laparotomy. Which of the following will be disturbed?
S2 heart sound is due to?
Regarding spinal nerve:
A student carries a study in a population comparing symptoms in diseased individuals against lack of those symptoms in non-diseased. This type of study is called?
Contractions that occur repeatedly and one contraction is followed by other without relaxation is?
Flaccid paralysis is caused by?
A young boy with complains of facial asymmetry, drooling of saliva from mouth and inability to close his eyes. The history prevails chronic nasopharyngeal sinusitis What is the most likely cause?
The most prominent feature of hypokalemia on ECG is?
A patient with CAD p/w orthopnea, dyspnea, BP 190/100. IV furosemide has been given. Next Step in management should be?
A child diagnosis with streptococcal meningitis. Her mother is concerned about her Other two children being affected at home. What is the route of this infection?
Insulin secretion is increased due to which of the following?
physiological shunt wilt be present when V/Q is?
Which of the following is a tumor suppression gene?
The most effective way to prevent heat loss is?
The nucleus responsible for collecting taste sensation from the root of the tongue is:
Lady had pneumonia which progressed to Septicaemia, Culture had become negative due to antibiotic treatment. Since she couldn’t maintain oxygen saturation. she was put on ventilator support, PEEP set at high, Fi02 100%. 5 days later patient died there were hyaline streaks on lungs with increased number Of macrophages along With neutrophils, likely cause is?
A patient with a history of multiple allergies given xylocaine. The reaction most suggestive of sensitivity is manifested by:
A fair skinned child developed sunburn day after playing on beach. The manifestation is?
Which hormone decreases contraction esophagus, stomach and gallbladder?
A patient present with cough and dyspnea Sputum exam reveals increase eosinophilic count. The likely diagnosis is?
A lesion sustained in which area will cause loss Of corneal reflex?
A Tall male school student presented to OPD with complains of gynecomastia with no drug history. He is also dull in school and O/E underdeveloped/ small testes were What test should be done to reach the diagnosis?
A 18year old girl taking hydrocortisone 20mg morning and 10mg in night for 10 days but is not tolerating She now is prescribed prednisolone: what dose should be given?
On staining, cytokeratin indicates?
A child with Microcephaly, Microphthalmia. polydactyly and rocker bottom feet. The chromosomal abnormality is?
An obese man feeling tightness in his collar Shirt falls on the side suddenly upon sharp Movement or his head. Which of the following has occurred in this patient?
Simulation of sympathetic nerve to the heart produce?
A 59year male diagnosed with mesothelioma presents X ray changes in lower lung lobos. He has been working in a ship company for a long period of time. The cause of mesothelioma in him is exposure to?
Clara cells are present in?
A person during surgery developed High grade fever. tachycardia and muscle fatigue. Which Of the following is mainly involved in this mechanism?
A 54-year-otd man arrives in dental clinic for toothache He has poor dental Hygiene. He is advised to undergo dental extraction of a molar tooth He has a history of rheumatic heart disease and has a prosthetic aortic valve. He is anergic to penicillin. Which following is the drug of choice for prophylaxis of endocarditis in this patient?
A boy, who is bedridden due to a car accident 1 year ago develops DVT. He presented to ER with chest pain and dyspnea. What will be the findings?
A child presented with sore throat fever, splenomegaly and cervical lymphadenopathy Microscopy of the lymph nodes shows bizarre shaped follicles that are fused, is inter follicular expansion by/increased immunoblast, small lymphocytes. plasma cells and histiocytes. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Feature of Addison disease?
Which of the following are mainly GFAP positive?
Nutmeg liver occurs in?
512 Hz tuning fork placed over head of patient; vibrations are perceived by?
Autoregulation of kidney is done by?
In pregnancy, which of the following occurs?
Which factor is determined by TPR index?
An old man with no other risk factors had tun-productive cough for 2 months. Now presented with blood-streaked sputum. O/E has bilateral wheeze. CXR shows 5 cm hilar mass in the left lung with hemorrhagic Neural effusion. Sputum shows hyper chromatic. pleomorphic cells with scanty cytoplasm, What is the most likely cause?
FSH in males is inhibited by?
A woman taking diclofenac for arthritis now started having gastritis. What is the mechanism of this NSAID?
After gunshot injury to the lower back, patient has contralateral loss of pain sensation and intact temperature sensation What is the likely diagnosis?
Which of the following is supplied by muscarinic cholinergic via post ganglionic sympathetic fibers?
A traveller after returning from Thailand presented with torrential diarrhea for several weeks. Stool RIE shows donut shaped c The organism most likely involved is?
The treatment of gas gangrene caused due to Clostridium perfringens will be?
A drug for headache which is contraindicated in patients with peripheral vascular disease?
Reversible disorderly maturation with variability in size. shape and polarity of cells is known as:
In bronchoscopy, which part of bronchus will be seen first?
Coronary blood now is mainly maintained by?
A boy with lethargy His diet contains mainly burgers. Blood picture shows macrocytic anemia, increase MCV. Most likely deficiency is of?
The aortic pressure is highest during one of the following phase of cardiac cycle:
At ovulation , the ovum is at which stage of miosis?
A 3-year-old child with recurrent infection and eczematous rashes to you with bloody diarrhea and normal IBA levels. What is the most likely diagnosis?
A 45-year female patient develops difficulty in language comprehension and intelligence. An MRI performed shows lesion most likely in one of the following areas of brain:
The best way to prevent complications of an intervention/procedure is?
In CT scan which of the following is seen at L1?
A 20Years male with gum hypertrophy, Ecchymosis and hepatomegaly. Labs show Hb 7.3 TLC 69x>10 and platelet 18×10>9. The most likely diagnosis is?
Neurotransmitter in corticostriatal pathway?
A pt with diarrhea, petechie, thrombocytopenia, raised Creat and unconjugated bilirubin. Diagnosis?
Which branch of renal artery supplies the network around glomerulus?
The major difference btw anaphylactic and hypovolemic shock is?
ABG shows pH 7.5, pC02 40, HC03 30. What is the likely diagnosis?
An old lady of 55 years of age was operated for partial gastrectomy due to bleeding gastric ulcer. She is now complaining of fatigue and weakness, with pale look. The most likely blood picture would be:
Difference between spleen and lymph nodes?
Fluid is aspirated from the grossly distended abdomen of a 47 -year-old chronic alcoholic man. The fluid is straw colored and clear and is found to have a protein content (largely albumin) of 2.5 g/dL. Which of the following is a major contributor to the fluid accumulation in this patient?
Elastic cartilage is found in?
The main function of baroreceptors is maintaining?
Increase in paC02 would cause?
The source of estrogen and progesterone during the last seven months of pregnancy is the:
A young previously healthy I/V drug addict Admitted in hospital with history of fever and Malaise for the last 5 days. From two tests of Blood culture there was growth of gram- Positive cocci arranged in clusters. The most Appropriate drug for the treatment of this would be:
Regarding thyroxine synthesis what is correct?
A pt has pruritic rash, raised creatine, urine plasma protein and burning hand and feet. Possible diagnosis is?
DOC for Taenia Solium & Schistosoma infestation?
Right bundle branch is present in?
Most common site of rib fracture is?
55. Lesion of Lateral Hypothalamus results in?
A 5HT3 antagonist was used in patient with severe abdominal pain and diarrhea. The drug is?
A female presented with swelling thing O/E it was below inguinal ligament, expansible, pulsatile and painless. Diagnosis?
A chemical factory worker was diagnose- with transition cell carcinoma of bladder What is the cause of the diagnosis?
A 50-year-old man presents with progressive difficulty in accommodating for seeing near. The likely cause is?
Gastric acid secretion is maximally stimulated by?
A patient with hemorrhage in RTA has unreportable BP. Receptors in aortic and carotid detect?
Adrenergic receptor in heart and uterine smooth muscle?
Which of the following antibodies will be raised in asthma allergy to aspergillus?
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction occurs because pulmonary arteries have?
Re-entry circuit is present in?
A complete section of the nerve due to injury to intercostal brachial nerve will result in?
A 50-year male underwent an abdominal surgery few months back, now presents with complains that the scar has become enlarged than the original wound and nodular. Biopsy shows high collagen and fibroblasts. What is the likely cause?
Excitation of posterior hypothalamus would cause?
Internal body environment haemostasis is regulated by?
Old female fall in washroom to fracture. After few days, she developed dyspnea and petechial rash on skin. The most probable cause is?
A lady developed DVT after a long flight. Test reveal protein C deficiency . How long need anticoagulant treatment?
A 3-month pregnant patient who is Rh +ve and has Rh -ve husband comes to you for counselling. She is most likely to have one of the following possibilities:
Inflammation below orbit cells found were histiocytes. lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and fibrosis. Which type inflammation has occurred?
Factor inhibiting fibrinolysis related to coronary artery disease?
A female taking dietary supplements for healthy longer life developed headache, dryness of oral mucosa, nausea, weight loss and painful hyperostosis. Fundoscopy revealed B/L papilledema. Which supplement could likely be causing this?
Which of the following malignancy is treatable?
In right superior homonymous quadrantanopia, which tract is involved?
Ventricle are directly stimulated by?
Small cell carcinoma of lung causes which paraneoplastic syndrome?
PAP smear findings shows dysplasia with intact basement membrane. The diagnosis is?
Most important cause of low amplitude ORS complex is?
A patient with amyloidosis is found to have plasma cell disorder. Which is the most likely type of protein responsible for his amyloidosis?
Von Willebrand’s factor produced by platelets and vascular endothelial cells is responsible for?
A patient presented to with renal failure symptoms. Investigation revealed deranged BUN/Creatinine Ratio > 20, with BUN in amount than creatinine. The likely diagnosis is?
A boy presented with fever 101’C, gum bleeding, corneal petechia and epistaxis. The best test to confirm diagnoses is?
A girl with coarse facial features, gap incisors and spade like hands. What when muscles get involved in this disease?
Costodiaphragmatic recess lies at the level of?
The most common pathogen involved in nosocomial pneumonia is?
The gene for causing Breast CA, BRCA is located at?
PhysiologicaI function of vitamin A?
pannus is associated with?
In spinal cord the transmitter released by interneurons at pain inhibiting complex and fibers transmitting is?
infection in the right atrium leads to damage of which area?
A 55year presents with throbbing headache, shoulder and neck pain and suddenly started having visual disturbance. CIE ESR raised, Temporal artery firm. tender and thus biopsied. What is the probable diagnosis?
A new-born with a large translucent shiny sac at the anterior abdominal wall Where umbilicus is attached to its apex. The probable diagnosis is?
I/M Injection in the upper outer quadrant are given With technique to avoid damage to?
Acetabulum inferior surface (floor) formed by?
Pellagra is caused by deficiency of which vitamin?
Features of vasculitis along with a purpura on buttocks in a child is suggestive of?
A 9-year boy presented with high grade fever and neck rigidity. Gram staining reveals cocci in culture. Which organism is likely involved?
The endometrial tissue biopsy report of 40 yrs. old female with dysfunction uterine bleeding shows increase gland to stroma ratio and cuboidal epithelium. The diagnosis is?
Correct regarding gamma globulin?
An ECG of a patient shows absent P waves, normal QRS complex and T waves. Where should the pacemaker be?
Which drug increases the esophageal sphincter tone and gastrointestinal motility?
Most likely cause of negative Mantoux test in pt with TB would be?
Rt Atrial Pressure when increased during Balloon angioplasty. results in increased release of?
Mean in large sample:
Plasma cells are derived from?
During examination deviation of the protruded tongue to left indicates damage the?
General sensation from anterior 2/3 Of tongue is carried by?
A lady has severe colicky pain which was relieved by giving Dicyclomine. This drug acts on?
Patient cannot speak but can understand spoken, written language, obey command. The lesion is likely in?
A 55-year old female known case of Haematological disease, admitted to the severe With the history of sudden onset of Severe dyspnea. ECHO shows severe pulmonary hypertension. What could be the best possible cause associated With her condition.
A footballer during game gets a blow on lateral side of knee. Ligament likely injured is?
Abdominal angina is caused due to occlusion of?
A patient has emphysema. What would be the acid base imbalance present in him?
Gamma globulins are formed by?
Sympathetic regulation Occurs in which of the following instead of local metabolites?
A 45-year man presents with severe epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, fever and increase in serum amylase and lipase with normal AST and ALT levels. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis made. Due to unbearable pain, a decision for partial pancreatectomy was made. On histology which of the following types of necrosis will be seen?
Structure that wraps around infundibulum is?
Most radiosensitive brain tumor is?
A 60 year had terminal ileum and ileocecal junction resection, in the long run he is likely to have deficiency of?
A 32yr old female is an automobile accident & suffers a fracture of left 9, 10 & 11th ribs. Which of following organs is most likely to have been injured?
Which of the following drug causes increase in heart rate when given in therapeutic dose?
Maximum Fenestrated capillary located in?
A patient on antipsychotic medications is being prepared for operation. Which antipsychotic interacts with ephedrine?
Facial infections from the tip of the nose can spread to cavernous sinus via?
The factor that can best improve the communication between a patient and his doctor is:
Sickle cell anaemia is an example of:
Asthmatic pt not responding to salbutamol, next drug given should be?
The drugs contraindicated is chronic Liver disease include:
While driving. the right and left movement t of the head occurs by which joint type?
Which sutures were prematurely closed in frontal and occipital bossing?
In TMJ dislocation. which structure prevents the joint to go back in cavity?
Spinal nerves are mixed because
Hypercarbia (hypercapnia) is more severe/toxic than hypoxia?
A 25-year-old man complains he has had pain in his right elbow, right wrist, left knee and left ankle for the last week or two. He recently carne back from Thailand Where he had been on a two-week holiday with his friends. He confessed that while on holiday he had unprotected sex. Examination shows tenderness and swelling of the tendons around the involved joints but no actual joint swelling. He also has a skin rash, which is vesicopustular. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Function of Brodmann area 43?
Long term steroid therapy has increased risk to which of the following?
Translocation Oft (8:14) Involving c-myc gene results in?
Features of a Spongy bone are?
Main supply of head of humerus is from?
Histologically, diagnostic features in a patient with known COPD (chronic bronchitis) is?