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Lipid laden macrophages in atherosclerosis are called
A pt with Hx of RTA. Presented with fracture fibula neck and foot drop. O/E there is loss of dorsiflexion and loss of sensation over dorsum of the foot. Nerve damaged is?
The half-life of a drug is 10 hours which is given in a continuous infusion. The steady state Will be reached in how many hours?
Lesion to right optic tract will lead to?
Site of bone marrow biopsy in a 25-year male is?
Descending thoracic Aorta begins at the level of?
A woman develops DVT after laparotomy. Most likely cause is?
An unconscious Person presented in Emergency, he had injury to head, he was kept in observation after sometime Lucid interval was seen then again patient become unconscious what is the cause?
Lymphatic obstruction is caused by combination of?
Which molecule is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion, especially in embryological cell adhesion molecule?
Tactile two-point discrimination is done by?
A 12-year girl complained of sore general malaise, fever. On further investigation she was found from beta streptococcal pharyngitis. The most effective treatment as a single dose will be of?
In Caucasians, the percentage of blood group O in a population is?
Hypoxia caused by anemia, which of the following occurs?
A 2-year child presents in OPD with fever, bowel disturbance and pallor. Investigation shows Hb 5.6, MCV 107, MCH 340, MCHC 36. The investigation of choice to confirm diagnosis is?
A patient had gone through operation for a long bone fracture. Operation was done successfully & patient was improving. After 4/5 days of fracture patients died. Cause of her death is embolism from?
A 68-year-old woman suddenly lost consciousness; on awakening 1 hour later, she could not speak or move her right arm and leg. Two months later, a head CT scan showed a large cystic area in the left parietal lobe. Which of the following pathologic processes has most likely occurred in the brain?
man had MI and died after 6 days. On autopsy, histological features show which of the following?
Posture maintenance is due to?
Which tumor parameter is clinically significant?
A female gravida 3, para 2 with hx of previous 2 children with some karyotype abnormality even though the female is physically normal presents to OPD with concern of her pregnancy. The type of abnormality is?
Drug that increases GFR?
Patient with left hemiplegia, left homonymous hemianopia, left hemineglect, lesion in which part of the brain?
Which of the following increases osteoblastic activity?
A couple have their first child with down syndrome. Both are young. Mother has Robertsonian translocation. What is the risk of down syndrome in next baby?
It is best to start the communication with a patient by:
A 49-year-old female with shortness of breath and dry cough is found to have hilar lymphadenopathy on chest x-ray. Biopsy of one of the lymph nodes reveals non caseating granulomas. Diagnosis is?
A 48 years old female on routine cardiac follow-up has BP 120/80 mmHg. ECG shows prolonged PR interval and left axis deviation. Echo did not demonstrate left ventricular hypertrophy. What is the diagnosis?
Pulmonary valve opens When right ventricular pressure exceeds?
In a patient with DKA, the most important buffer would be?
A patient with a deep knife wound in the buttock walks with a waddling gait that is characterized by the pelvis falling toward one side at each step. Which of the following nerves is damaged?
A patient is administered a tuberculin Test. Which of the following types of Hypersensitivity reaction is being tested and which cells would be expected to mediate a positive test result?
Which hormone does corpus luteum normally secrete?
Worker p/w an excessive bleeding by a pierced rod, lateral to tendon of extensor hallucis longus. Which artery is likely damaged?
Patient with head injury in ER, GCS 12 (E4M5V3). Which brain structure is likely affected?
Female with one sided throbbing headache associated with nausea. vomiting and photophobia. What first line treatment should be given for this acute condition?
Pellagra is due to a deficiency of?
A 4yr. boy presents with periorbital edema/Generalized edema Mechanism of edema is?
Parasite level test in blood is done in which age group?
Which hormone increase activity of lipoprotein lipase?
Second order neuron of Anterior spinothalamic tract?
A man presented with right hemiplegia and deviation of mouth to left and drooling of water on swallowing. The lesion is in?
Involvement of which part of the brain is in control of direct autonomic reflexes?
The occlusion of inferior mesenteric artery leads to?
The common side effect of an anti- hyperlipidaemic drug is?
While operating, the surgeon nicks a vessel posteriorly to the epiploic foramen, which results in profuse bleeding. This vessel likely is ?
In Erb’s Palsy, which muscles are affected?
A girl 18 yrs. old with hx of primary amenorrhea otherwise normal appearance and absent secondary sexual characteristics. O/E normal breast and blind uterus. On USG absent ovaries and uterus. Karyotype is?
A female undergone gastrectomy was given parenteral Vit B12. The inability to absorb vit b12 occurs due to loss of which cells during gastrectomy?
Total volume of ICF in healthy adult man
Defecation occurs mainly due to:
65-year male develops right sided hemiplegia and slight deviation of angle of mouth to the left while talking. He is able to Close his eyes on command. What other finding can be present?
During fetal life, the blood having the maximum oxygen saturation is in the:
A patient with cervical dysplasia is suspected to have cervical Ca. Which of the following tests is advised initially which is easily performed, useful and cost effective?
Chorionic villous sampling is done at?
At which level does the superior mesenteric artery supply convert to IMA supply in regard of colon?
Energy used during respiration is?
Carcinoma of cervix is diagnosed by?
Which dietary restriction should be advised to pt with hyperkalemia?
A young female presented in OPD with loss of light reflex but intact accommodation reflex, This is likely due to?
Treatment of anemia after total gastrectomy is?
A young boy with complains of facial asymmetry, drooling of saliva from mouth and inability to close eyes. The lesion is likely
One of the following is responsible for the process of myelination in the CNS:
Surfactant deficiency will lead to:
A 38-year-old man wins a marathon race in a record time. The finding which describes his hormonal balance as he crosses the finish line is:
Most important function of progesterone?
After obstruction of a bronchus all the alveoli aerated by that bronchus do not collapse?
On staining, cytokeratin indicates?
A 15-year-old boy underwent bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia, with marrow donated from a sibling, with a 5 out of 6 antigen matches. He later developed a fine, scaling skin rash as well as a watery diarrhea. Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to accompany this patient’s disease?
A microbiologist viewing a slide under microscope which shows cell shrinkage, condense nuclei and irregular cell membrane of cells. These are a feature of?
Which prevents reflection of light entering eyes?
A boy came with bleeding from nose. Labs show PT 13s APTT 60s and bleeding time 6rnin. Diagnosis?
During brachial plexus block by axillary approach. Lateral part of fore arm was still having sensation. Nerve which was spared from anaesthetic effect is:
The groove in the mediastinal surface of left lung is for?
Which PFTs findings are closely related to a patient of bronchial asthma?
The ECG of a person shows progressive prolongation Of PR interval in successive heart beats followed by a dropped beat. The person is most likely to have:
A child suffering from high grade fever, Mother took him to doctor, on examination there is petechial rash, on lab testing gram +ive cocci found, what does it produce which caused this?
The artery palpated between trachea and infrahyoid is?
A patient with hx of fever, malaise, and subcutaneous bleeding. Investigation reveals normal CBC and coagulation profile. The likely diagnosis is?
During examination, deviation of the protruded tongue to left indicates damage to the?
Which of the following infection is most likely related with cysts in brain with daughter cysts on CT scan?
An old man died after a recent abdominal surgery. Most probable cause is?
A 52year male is brought into ER by his wife because he has been complaining of a severe headache. Physical exam reveals ptosis of the right eyelid with the right eye facing down and Out. There is a fixed and dilated right pupil with an inability to accommodate. Subarachnoid blood appears on noncontrast CT scan. MRA would be expected to reveal an aneurysm Of which of the following vessels?
Lymphatic drainage of external nose is from?
A known HTN lady presented with severe headache, vomiting and raised ICP. On lumbar puncture, the CSF was blood stained. What is the most likely cause?
Which of the following is seen in cocaine induced MI?
Pericytes provide support to smooth muscle of which structure?
Which hepatitis, in Asia, is common with yet With minimal complications?
If GFR increases, proximal tubular reabsorption of salt and water will increase by a process called glomerulotubular balance. The most likely contribution to this process would be?
A 60-year-old patient’s CSF showed a pH of 6.8, proteins 500 mg/dL. Glucose 25 mg/dl (RBS 200 mg/dl), TLC 8000 mostly polymorph. The most appropriate treatment would be:
The most probable mechanism for the development of cancer in human is?
A 21 -year-old man has had increasing malaise over the past three weeks. On physical examination his vital signs show: Temperature 39.2, Pulse 105, RR 29 and BP 80/40 mmHg. The physician auscultates a loud systolic cardiac murmur. His lungs on auscultation have bibasilar crackles. Needle tracks are seen in his left antecubital fossa. He has splinter hemorrhages noted on fingernails, as well as painful erythematous nodules on palmar surfaces. A tender spleen tip is palpable. A chest radiograph shows pronounced pulmonary edema. Which of the following laboratory test findings is most likely to be present in this patient’s peripheral blood?
Major artery supply of medial surface of parietal and frontal lobe is from?
A ballet dancer spins to the left. during the spin, her eyes snap quickly to the left. this fast eye movement is
Feature common in infection, ischemia and infarction is?
The major (sensory) nerve supply from the side of the scalp and associated with the temporal and parietal area is via the:
A Female with sign and symptoms of Hyperprolactinemia was diagnosed with pituitary adenoma. The growth of this tumor anteriorly will compress which structure:
A patient died in ER with long standing pulmonary congestion due to mitral stenosis. autopsy, the alveoli will be lined by which of the following?
In metabolic acidosis, how is renal compensation done?
Which of the following has a Feco-oral route of transmission?
Lesion in dorsal column medial meniscus pathway causes?
Prostacyclin is released by:
ECG of a 45 years old man, on beta-blockers for hypertension showed prolonged PR interval on executive checkup. The most likely cause is:
A lady accidentally cut her finger in kitchen, she was brought to the hospital and wound is sutured. Doctor assured her that healing take place. Which layer of skin regenerate after injury:
Which of the following drugs is useful in prophylaxis of migraine?
Cancer causing genetic mutations are?
Vasopressin is released in?
The most diagnostic feature of folic acid deficiency is?
Carcinoma tongue of the tip of the tongue will drain first in to?
A Pt with paralysis of right side of the body deviation of angle of mouth to the left and drooling of saliva and the Pt can close both eyes injury is at level of?
A man working in a cotton mill industry is likely to suffer from?
Which of the following cell type have the highest telomerase activity?
The buffer system exclusively present in the renal tubules is:
PDGF released from which organelles of platelets?
Loss of Two-point discrimination after RTA. Lesion in?
A 5-year child presents with repeated episodes of epistaxis and gum bleeding. Blood show Hb 10. platelets normal. BT more than 20mins, APTT 28s. What is the diagnosis?
Mechanism of action of progesterone containing oral contraceptive pills (OCP) is?
A pt comes to ophthalmology clinic with c/o gradual loss of vision. His accommodation reflex was lost but light reflex was present. Diagnosis?
Drug used for treatment of HIV infection?
A 40 years old male presented with jaundice and generalized itching. His liver function tests show: Direct Bilirubin 15 mg/100mI, SPGT 75 u/l, alkaline phosphate 1600 u/l and GGT 275 u/l. The most likely possibility is:
With increasing age a decrease to occur in?
The cheGGCRiGå6åiator between most of the postganglionic sympathetic nerves and their effector organs is:
Which of the following passes between C5.CE vertebrae?
A 5-year girl presented with pallor, lethargy and fatigue. CBC showed microcytic anemia. The mother gives history of her daughter eating mud regularly. The treatment shall be?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae shows one of the following characteristics?
A young medical technician had a history of acute eczematous dermatitis on her hands and wrist after wearing latex gloves. The skin was dry, crusted and thickened. The eczematous reaction cleared after a 2-week vacation but returned after 72hrs back on the job and continued to grow worse. The reaction to latex gloves was most likely:
A man had extensive burns completely damaging stratum corneum. spinosum and lucidum. The most likely acute complication will be?
Macrophages in lungs are termed as?
Gram positive bacteria cause septic shock due to presence of which substance in their cell wall?
An abnormal finding in CSF is?
In a pt with Cushing syndrome, which of the following is needed for the production for the hormone that is in excess?
After obstruction of a bronchus all the alveoli aerated by that bronchus do not collapse?
A 40 years old male has achalasia of the esophagus. The most likely cause is?
The end-diastolic ventricular volume (EDV) depends mainly on?
Most common method to detect any type of cancer in blood is?
An unconscious boy of 11 year is brought to the emergency department of a hospital in a state of shock. Doctor on duty is unable to find any vein. The vein of lower limb most likely to be chosen for venesection is:
A patient is presented in OPD with bitemporal hemianopia aneurysm is most likely in Which of following?
FSH in males, is inhibited by?
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers to lacrimal gland carried by?
How to differentiate hematopoietic stem cells in Myelocytic stage?
A baby with recurrent chest and skin infections. Ix show lg E level which was very high (25000), lg A slightly decrease, nitro blue tetrazolium test was abnormal but DHT was normal. What is the diagnosis?
The secondary oocyte is formed under the influence of?
Sodium absorption increases at DCT due to?
In a patient whose Vasectomy has been done, the composition of ejaculated fluid will be?
Example of locally malignant tumor is?
From sitting to standing there is compensation by which mechanism?
Biopsy of a 30-year male with reflux esophagitis shows columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. This pt has increased risk of developing?
The four pillar of Medical Ethics?
A man after lifting heavy weight experiences sudden pain in his arm. O/E swelling in upper forearm is noted at the site where the muscle is attached to radial tuberosity. The muscle likely injured is?
In Myocardial Infarction, the type of shock is?
During a forced expiration, actively contracting muscle is:
Scenario of a scientist experimenting on mice, where he injects plastic hydrocarbon, which will work as initiator. question was regarding initiator?
A patient k/c of cardiac disease came with complaint of vomiting. On barium swallow mid esophageal stricture was noted. Drug responsible is?
An Old man wants to pass stool but has passive defecation. What is the supply for rectum?
Hyperprolactinemia occurs due to?
In its passage through an intercostal space, a bullet would first pierce one of the following layers after passing through the intercostal muscles?
Pt with hemolytic anemia with recurrent bleeding. The factor responsible is?
Cell shrinkage, cytoplasmic blebs are of?
The commonest inherited disorder of haemostasis is:
Prolactin is present in pregnancy but women doesn’t lactate due to?
Partial resection of pancreas lead to loss of exocrine function. What finding will be present?
A lady has severe colicky pain which was relieved by giving Dicyclomine. This drug acts on?
Xerostomia involves which nucleus?
Which GI secretion is most isotonic, has high HC03 and has its production inhibited by vagotomy?
saliva. when compared to plasma, has?
Micturition reflex is voluntary inhibited by a person through?
While running in marathon organized in July, the runner started sweating profusely and complained of dizziness, confusion and fell unconscious. What is the most likely cause?
Most radiosensitive brain tumor is?
The Pain inhibitory system of brain and spinal cord in located in?
Which ligament gives stability and keeps in position?
Which of the following is a poor prognostic last factor for sepsis?
Long and narrow head of patient due to early closure of?
What is the mechanism of action of cimetidine in a female pt who is going to undergo a C-sec?
A 28-year-old soldier after retiring from Siachen glacier. having spent 6 months there, presents to CMH Rawalpindi, with complains of headache and peripheral cyanosis of his fingers. Most probably the cause is?
A male with loss of penile erection and gynecomastia. Which of the following is likely to be elevated?
An old man p/w non-productive cough and is afebrile shows lower lobe round consolidation for which antibiotics were started but no improvement was seen in X- ray findings. Bronchioalveolar lavage was done which showed atypical cells with scattered macrophages. The likely diagnosis is?
Mechanism action of tetracycline?
A homosexual man having foul smelling diarrhea, flatulence. O/E bowel sound were exaggerated with no finding of any mass. Which drug should he be started on?
A 15-year-old boy was brought to paediatric cardiologist for evaluation. blood pressure 90/40 mmHg. Auscultation revealed continuous machinery like murmur. Echo showed left ventricular hypertrophy. Which of the following cardiac abnormalities is most likely to be present in this patient?
A young medical student already holding 3 books want to pick up a fourth book from the library. Upon holding the fourth book, she drops all the book. This is most likely due to?
A 12-year-old boy with hemophilia A has had episode of pain in his knee for past 6yrs over Tim there has been an increase. In size of his knee joint with deformity. Lab studies show decreased level of coagulation factor viii activity. Which of the following materials is most likely to be seen within the joint space following episode of pain?
HLA-B27 is associated with?
35-year-old female with anterior mediastinal mass is having bilateral ptosis of eye during evening since last few weeks. The underlying mechanism of the disease is?
A 50-year-old male developed poor renal function 6 months after renal transplant. The renal function improved after immuno- suppressive therapy. The most likely cause for poor function was:
A 40-year male came to the ER with sudden onset of profuse, effortless, watery diarrhea (rice water) followed by vomiting, rapid dehydration, muscular cramps. He gives history of drinking water from a stream and his 2 kids also have the same symptoms Microscopic examination shows coma shaped organism. What is your diagnosis?
In a study. a population was divided into subgroups based on age and from each subgroup the samples were taken randomly. Such sampling is known as:
A boy gets hit with ball on right side of head remains unconscious for 3 mins later on develop temporal swelling, blurring of vision and dizziness. On examination right pupil dilated which vessel involved?
Child present with fever, neck stiffness headache and skin rash. Treatment should be?
A young man damage to posterior cranial fossa during RTA now came with difficulty in pharyngeal swallowing. Which nerve is damaged?